Bible Text: Acts 1:1-11 and 1 John 5:9-13 | Preacher: Rev. Bruce W. Kemp | Series: Celtic Spirituality Listening for the Goodness While there has always been a recognized orthodoxy in the church with those ways of thinking that run contrary to it being discredited, it remains for us in our time to examine the controversies of the previous generations and decide for ourselves whether or not such thinking was indeed heretical and dangerous to a proper interpretation of the word of God or whether it was a politically motivated attempt to control the spiritual journey of the people. Many of us trace our roots to the British Isles with many of us laying claim to that heritage now recognized in song, art and poetry as Celtic. And while we may well recognize that the Celts were a spiritual people before the arrival of Christianity, there may be still questions in our minds as to the nature of that spirituality and whether or not it could find a legitimate expression within the Christian faith. While there were signs that the Christian faith had been introduced to the Celtic people as early as the third century, it was not until the fourth century that what has come to be viewed as a distinctive Celtic spirituality emerged. One of the first prominent Celtic theologians was a man named Pelagius. Many people believed that Pelagius was teaching that we are capable of saving ourselves and that we do not rely on the redeeming grace of God. Since most of the writings of Pelagius have not survived, it is difficult to give a fair assessment of his thought. He is most often viewed through the eyes of his two greatest critics, Augustine of Hippo and Jerome. Pelagius grew up in a different world from Augustine or Jerome and his spirituality grew out of his experience of God in what was a far more wild part of the world. The isolation of the British church – due to its position at the far edge of the Roman Empire – contributed to a number of things which did not sit well with Augustine who was more closely tied to Rome and the central seat of the faith. In everything from hair-style to diet and even physical appearance, there was much to criticize. Certainly it could be argued that it was inappropriate to adopt or carry on some of the pre-Christian practices but over the centuries we have discovered that such things can help to bridge the gap between the pre-Christian experience of God and the revelation of God in Jesus Christ. For many cultures their spirituality found a natural connection to the Christian message and so enabled people to embrace the faith and find a deeper meaning to their life. Many people actually found the teachings and thoughts of Pelagius to be deeply spiritual but his appearance caused others to find reasons to discredit him. The whole emphasis that is in the church today on spiritual direction and finding a spiritual director or guide is a feature of the Celtic church where people were encouraged to find what was called an anamchara or soul friend. But Pelagius did not expect this person to be the priest or religious leader. For him, the soul friend needed to be someone to whom you could open your inner self, ‘hiding nothing’, he says, ‘revealing everything’ in order to know and further explore what is in one’s own heart. Each of us would do well to find such a person. Another typical mark of the Celtic spirituality which Pelagius emphasized was a strong sense of the goodness of creation in which the life of God can be glimpsed. He believed that narrow shafts of divine light pierce the veil that separates heaven from earth. Every movement of the animals, the birds, insects, and fish – all revealed to him the presence and the spirit of God. This was not animism – a belief that the actual object was God but rather that as part of creation given life by God, the spirit of God dwelt there as it did throughout creation. He saw beauty and goodness in all creation. Not sure if mosquitoes and black flies were in his world and whether he would have been as positive about God’s presence in them. They are a challenge! Because Pelagius saw God as present within all that has life, he understood Jesus’ command to love our neighbour to mean not only our human neighbours but all life. He ran himself into trouble because he sought to widen the circle and challenge the people to not live their lives strictly in response to a set of beliefs or doctrines but to live a life of wisdom. They were encouraged to love all people, friends and enemies alike, and do good in return for evil. For him Jesus was the embodiment of all wisdom and humility and was the perfection of the wisdom by which we are to be guided in life. For Pelagius, doctrines may help to explain mysteries, Scripture records for us the teaching and example of Jesus and the early church, but it is how we respond with our heart and actions that truly matter. For him, to believe in Christ was no sign of true faith or spiritual growth; it was how that belief translated into a life seeking to follow the example of Christ. Many people came to believe that he was suggesting that we did not need to believe in Jesus or his atoning sacrifice but rather he was encouraging us to go beyond simple belief or doctrine to embrace the message of Christ in such a way as to grow in likeness to him. Never did he believe that we could become perfect but he believed that we needed to strive to that perfection. To restrain from doing wrong deeds is of little good if we are not prepared to also do good deeds. Pelagius also firmly held that every child is conceived and born in the image of God. He believed that the newborn contains the original, unsullied goodness of creation and humanity’s essential blessedness. For him in the birth of a child God was giving birth to his image on earth. While many believed that Pelagius denied the presence of evil and its power over the human person, rather Pelagius believed that the image and goodness of God was at the heart of humanity and that wrongdoing and evil obscured or covered it over. The light of God is at the heart of every person waiting to be liberated. Our redemption in Christ becomes for us a setting free, a releasing of what we essentially are. What Pelagius emphasized and sought for people to come to appreciate was the dignity of our human nature. He believed that our deepest desires are for God even though other desires obscure our true heart. He never claimed that we could not do that which is evil but he would allow us to believe that we could be forced to do it by a fault in our nature. He strongly believed in our freedom to choose the good and sought for people to have the confidence to know that this was God’s hope and desire. He never denied the centrality of God’s grace but rather saw it as the strength that enables us to choose the good and do it. Evil, he says, is like a fog that blinds is to our true selves. Pelagius looked for the good not only in the people within the Church but to those outside. When we meet good, kind and just people outside the church, where do these qualities come from? For Pelagius it is a sign that their essential nature is good and that nature is a gift of God. Rather than the world being opposed to the Church, Pelagius sees the Church as an integral part of the world given the key to unlock the essential nature of all creation. Our own acknowledgement of God in Christ is to be viewed as a liberation of our spirit to discover the essential goodness that our creation has granted us. The question for Pelagius is not how do we institutionalize this goodness but rather how do we help others to discover that essential goodness within them. For Pelagius, the gift of the gospel is that we are ‘instructed by the grace of Christ’, encouraged and shown the goodness of God that is within us. Philip Newell, the author whose work is the basis for this series writes the following: If we believe that at birth we lack the image of God and are essentially sinful, what are the implications for our spirituality? Does it mean that there is no vital connection between true spirituality and the sort of purity, simplicity, innocence and goodness of an infant? If we deny that God is at the very heart of life, are we essentially without God, without original goodness in our mothers’ wombs, so that our spirituality does not grow out of what God has planted within us? Is spirituality alien to our original nature, or does grace nurture our innate goodness? What about our relationship with the rest of humanity? If we regard others as lacking essential goodness because they are outside the Church’s sacramental ministry, does that mean that our spirituality has nothing to learn from other faiths and from the virtues that, as Pelagius reminds us, can be observed in our neighbours, many of whom are not members of the Christian church? (Listening for the Heartbeat of God, pp. 21-22) We do not know how Pelagius responded to his harsh treatment at the hands of the institutional church but we do know how he chose to live his life and express his faith. He wrote: ‘Wisdom consists in listening to the commandments of God, and obeying them. A person who has heard that God commands people to be generous, and then shares what he has with the poor, is truly wise. A person who has heard that God commands people to forgive…. and then reaches out in love to his persecutors, is truly wise’ (Carmina Gadelica III, p. 207)
Bible Text: Genesis 28:10-17 and 1 Peter 2:1-5, 9-10 | Preacher: Rev. Bruce W. Kemp The Meaning of Blessing Blessing is a common feature of Christian worship. We conclude our services of worship with a commissioning but also with a benediction or blessing. Blessing is an integral part of the marriage rite. Baptismal water and marriage rings are blessed before their liturgical use. Traditionally, church buildings are blessed in a very solemn rite known as consecration. Today I would like to explore the meaning of blessing: what is intended by a blessing. Some stories in the bible seem to suggest that the power to bless is a force held by certain people because of their place in the order of human relationships. In the story of Isaac and his sons, for instance, Isaac holds a blessing which he intends to give to Esau, his eldest son, before he dies. However, Isaac’s younger son, Jacob, masquerades as the elder brother and tricks his blind father into giving the blessing to the wrong son. The blessing passes almost like an impersonal force, and the deed once done cannot be reversed. Esau weeps and begs his father to bless him too, but Isaac is powerless and the gift remains with Jacob. Another strand of biblical thought suggests that blessing belongs primarily to God and is given only at God’s initiative. In one story, Balak, king of Moab, watches with horror as the people of Israel march triumphantly towards his land. He hires Balaam, a soothsayer, to curse the Israelites. But God tells Balaam that he has already blessed the Israelites, and warns him not to curse them. When Balaam is pressed by the king of Moab, God allows him to proceed with the ritual but commands him to repeat only what he is allowed to say. Three times Balaam tries to keep his contract with the king of Moab, but three times the words that come from his mouth are words of blessing. It is a lovely irony that the words of Balaam’s unwilling blessing, “How fair are your tents, O Jacob, your encampments, O Israel,” are now part of the introduction to the daily synagogue liturgy. (See Num 22–24.) Some stories tend to imply that a blessing opens the gateway to wealth and success for the person who receives the blessing. In other stories, like the story of Abraham, blessing has implications for the long-range future. God’s blessing of Abraham is a covenant which will extend to future generations. As the story of Abraham’s descendants unfolds, it becomes apparent that a blessing may be withheld because of disobedience. The absence of a blessing then may take the form of judgement. The first appearance of a blessing in a congregational setting of worship is recorded in Numbers 6. Part of this particular form of blessing is still used by both the Jewish and Christian faiths. The Lord commanded Moses to tell Aaron and his sons to use the following words in blessing the people of Israel: May the Lord bless you and take care of you; May the Lord be kind and gracious to you; May the Lord look on you with favour and give you peace. And the Lord said, “If they pronounce my name as a blessing upon the people of Israel, I will bless them.” In Hebrew thought a name connotes identity. Blessing the people with God’s name identifies them as the people of God. They are, as it were, inscribed with God’s signature. The first creation story (Gen 1.1—2.3) contains a whole theology of blessing. Some non-biblical creation stories seem to suggest that nature is sacred in itself or may be infused with sacred qualities through the practice of ritual and festival. The creation story at the beginning of Genesis stands stoutly against that tradition. The world is not divine but is here because God made it, and it has vitality because God blessed it. The creation story unfolds in the sequence of the days of the first week, but twice the flow of events is interrupted for a blessing (Gen 1.22 and 28), and a third blessing is added at the end (Gen 2.3). There appear to be two moments in the Genesis view of creation: first God creates, then God blesses. God’s blessing confers the vitality and power which the world will need for its fullness. Blessing in the Hebrew Scriptures is about life, full and overflowing. God blesses the creatures of water and air. God blesses the man and the woman with fertility and with responsibility for the world. Finally, at the end of the process of creation, God blesses the day of rest. Blessing is not just a gesture of good will. Blessing is a state of well-being given for the fulfilment of creation. It is wholeness. It is everything we have come to understand by the Hebrew word shalom. We may untangle a sequence of thought in which blessing is presented in the scriptures of the Old Testament: God blesses all life for its extension and well-being; humans participate in this blessing through procreation and by accepting responsibility for the created order. People bless people: parents bless their children, ministers bless the congregation, couples bless one another when they marry as a sign of their common participation in God’s blessing. People bless God as a response to God’s blessing and as prayer for their participation in God’s blessing (see Psalms 103 and 134 as examples). While the Hebrew Scriptures abound with examples of people blessing each other and blessing God for his goodness, there are few occasions when a blessing is offered for a place. Perhaps a close example is Solomon’s dedication of the Temple, a rite that was clearly intended to inaugurate the use of the new liturgical space he had built. However, his prayer of dedication (1 Kings 8.22–61) is less concerned with the state of the Temple as a blessed place than with the use of the Temple in the piety of Israel. When his prayer is ended, Solomon blesses the people by blessing God (vv. 55f). As Judaism developed, an elaborate scheme of blessings was created, to be recited on most important occasions of life, including everyday occasions like eating, drinking, being in a storm, on seeing a rainbow, etc. A prayer of this kind is called a “berakah”, because of its opening word in Hebrew. Rabbis taught that “It is forbidden to a man to enjoy anything of this world without a benediction, and if anyone enjoys anything of this world without a benediction, he commits sacrilege.” Another rabbi said, “To enjoy anything of this world without a benediction is like making personal use of a thing consecrated to heaven, without acknowledging that ‘The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof.’” Jewish blessings often begin with the formula, “Blessed are you, Lord God, King of the universe.” They continue with a statement of the reason why the blessing is offered. A simple blessing before eating bread continues, “who brings forth bread from the earth.” Longer blessings include petitions. Such blessings are prayers related to the ongoing process of life and the fulfilment of God’s creation. Prayer of this kind passed into Christian practice. In the Benedictus, for instance, Zechariah blesses his son John by blessing God for the covenant of salvation (Lk 1.68–79). Paul refers to the Communion cup as “the cup of blessing that we bless” (1 Cor 10.16). However, at a very early date in their history, Christians began to translate the Hebrew word for “blessing” into the Greek word for “thanksgiving,” especially when it referred to the communion. The practice of blessing the food of the communion by giving thanks continued, but other blessings eventually appeared to be prayers in which we ask God to do something quite different. A split was created between blessing and thanksgiving. If we analyze our traditional Western forms of blessing we find that they tend to suggest that something has to be done to things like wedding rings and candlesticks and vestments and church buildings to make them fit for the holy purposes in which they are to be used. There is an implication that the object in question is not holy but has to be made holy. At this point a return to the Jewish roots of blessing may be helpful. Rabbi Lawrence Hoffman has written: “Contrary to popular opinion, ‘blessing food’ does not add to its sanctity, but the very reverse. Food in its natural state is holy, as it is a creation of God, who is holy . . . . We recognize it as a gift of God by acknowledging God’s holiness in a blessing. Perhaps it is time to recover this sense that everything which comes from the Creator’s hand is holy and is released for our use by grateful praise and thanksgiving. In doing so we may discover again a vision of the universe as sacramental (and consequently of the environment as a sacred trust). We need to remind ourselves that although not every blessing is a thanksgiving, every blessing is an act of thanksgiving and finds its fulfilment and completion in that central Christian act of worship. The same point applies to the blessing of people. We bless people not to increase their spiritual dignity but to give thanks for the role they have been called to play within the reign of God and thus to release them to play their part. Every communion prayer is such a blessing: we give thanks for the mighty acts of God and pray that those who gather at the table may be “one body and one holy people, a living sacrifice in Jesus Christ, our Lord.” Of course our traditional forms of blessing people may continue (e.g., “Almighty God … bless you”), but we should remember that they are prayers of thanksgiving for God’s goodness and grace already received, and for its completion in these people. And so we cannot separate blessing and thanksgiving. Every prayer of blessing is thanksgiving for creation and redemption, offered in petition for the fulfilment of the divine purpose in God’s people and in the entire world. Prayers of blessing are the return of refracted light to its source. As we go from this place with a blessing, let us ever remember that it is for us a sign of thanksgiving and our recognition that we are the people of God!
Bible Text: Acts 3:12-19 1 John 3:1-7 | Preacher: Rev. Bruce W. Kemp We are truly the product of our experiences. For us today our experience of church and even how we express our faith in God is so much shaped by the history and ideas of those who have preceded us. As a Christian church and specifically Presbyterian denomination we view the world and our relation to it from a certain theological perspective. That perspective has been shaped and reshaped over the centuries by the reflections of major thinkers who have sought to guide us in our worship of and life with God so as to ensure that we were doing everything that was right and proper. Certainly we can say that they didn’t get it all right but we must consider carefully that they ever sought to lead us on a path to a proper and full understanding of who we are as a creation of God and how best to be the people they believed God had created us to be. As you can no doubt appreciate - even from reading the four gospels and the many letters which compose the accepted version of the Bible and chroncile the birth of the Christian church - there were many different ways of interpreting not only what we are to believe about God but how we are to express that belief not only in worship but in our daily living. In fact there are many points in the growth and spread of the Christian faith where conflicts arose over how to interpret the words of the writers of the Bible and even how to guide the faith of the people so as to develop a proper view of God and ensure that people took the right path. And so it was that there developed in a part of the world isolated from the influence of the Roman Empire and the religious thought in Rome, a way of seeing God and our faith in God that led the people to an understanding of their world and their relationship to God that was a challenge to the accepted position of church leaders such as Augustine and Jerome. What I am speaking about is the Celtic church. The Celtic church had developed a spirituality that stood in sharp contrast to the Roman church. Firmly rooted in the spirituality of the gospel of St. John, the Celtic church listened for the heartbeat of God. They believed that this heartbeat is at the heart of all life while the Roman church listened for God in the ordained teaching and life of the church. At a synod of the church catholic in 664, the decision was made that only one view would prevail. The decision was for the Roman church and so the spiritual heritage of the Celtic church was discouraged and gradually over time it faded into obscurity. Rather than believing that both ways of seeing God and our relationship to Him were good and acceptable, the decision was made to accept one and reject the other – the belief being that this would promote unity in the church. Of course we know that God does not meet us all in the same way and that each of us finds God or is found by Him in our own time. And so what was it that so alarmed the traditional church fathers who sought to protect the orthodoxy of the church from these radical Christians? There were two things that troubled the Roman church. The first was the Celtic emphasis on creation. For the Celts, God was not just the creator but inherently present in all of creation. For the Celtic church God could not and should not be separated from the creation. While many of us think of the created world like a piece of art that stands on its own once finished, the Celts believed that God has never stepped back from creation. In fact the belief is that God dwells within every part of the created order. The world in which we live cannot be distanced from us. And even though there will be a new heaven and earth, the beauty and vibrancy found in the world as it is cannot be seen apart from God. For the Celtic church, we are to seek God by looking towards the heart of life, not away from life. To believe that the heartbeat of God is found in all of creation causes us to pause and give serious consideration to how we interact with all of creation. It forces us to consider more carefully what it means to be a steward of creation. You could say that the Celtic church was more sensitive to the environment as all of life contains the sacred presence of God and needs to be respected and honoured. One other point of conflict between the Celtic and Roman church was whether or not the image of God was present in all people or only those who believed in God as expressed through the church. Perhaps you have heard of Pelagius. He is associated with a heresy that has led him to be condemned as one of the greatest deceivers of Christians of all time. Sadly, the difference in interpretation of the faith between Pelagius and Augustine became a political struggle that ended with the excommunication of Pelagius and the push to eradicate any of the theological views of the Celtic church. Pelagius maintained that the image of God can be seen in every newborn child and that, although obscured by sin, it exists at the heart of every person, waiting to be released through the grace of God. Pelagius was up against Augustine who not only was one of the great theologians of his time but who lived closer to the political centre of the faith. It was his interpretation that every one of us is born sinful and that the image of God can only be restored to us through the Church and its sacraments. Augustine developed a spirituality that accentuated a division between the Church, which was seen as holy, and the life of the world, perceived as godless. And while we may think that the Celtic spirituality grew out of a misguided path borne of an isolation it actually has its roots in the teaching of St. John and even to the Wisdom tradition of the Old Testament. It was a spirituality characterized by a listening within all things for the life of God. While this series of talks will not be presented consecutively due to a number of special events, there will be six over the next two to three months. All will be posted on the website for you to review or catch up on what you missed. As with any topic that concern our faith in and life with God, the spirituality of the Celtic church will resonate with some of you while others may opt for a different path. However, I believe it is important for us to understand and appreciate that while we all come to God in Christ, we may choose different ways to find our way there. My prayer is that you will find in this series something to help you plumb deeper into the mystery of life itself and your life with God. Reverend Bruce Kemp